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What is Probate Court and How Does it Work?

On Behalf of | Aug 9, 2023 | Probate, Probate 101, Probate Assistance, Probate Attorneys, Probate Court, Probate Lawyers AZ, What is Probate?

Losing a loved one is a deeply emotional experience, and while dealing with grief, there are also important legal matters to address. One of the fundamental legal processes that occur after someone passes away is probate. Probate plays an important role in the legal process after someone dies. When someone passes away, their assets and estate often need to be distributed among their heirs and beneficiaries and any final expenses need to be paid. But who does this and under what authority? That is where the probate process comes into play. In this article, we will explore some of the details of probate court and how it works.

Understanding Probate: The Basics

Probate is the legal procedure where a deceased person’s assets, debts, and estate are managed and distributed according to their will or through the default laws (if there is no will). The main goal of probate is to make sure that the decedent’s final affairs are settled systematically, providing a structured transition for the estate and its beneficiaries.

A will in and of itself is not sufficient legal authority for an Executor, who is also known as a Personal Representative, to act on behalf of the Estate. The probate court has to approve the will and issue “Letters of Appointment” that give the Executor/Personal Representative the power to act on the estate’s behalf. Approving the will means that the court is satisfied that the will is valid, that all of the required legal formalities were met, and that the person petitioning the court to receive authority to act on behalf of the estate is entitled to do so.

Initiating the Probate

How do you start a probate? The probate process is typically initiated by the executor/personal representative named in the decedent’s will. If there is no will or no executor named, there are state defaults found in the probate code that dictate who is able to be the executor. Alternatively, the court may appoint a personal representative/executor to oversee the process. The personal representative is responsible for filing necessary documents with the probate court to open the probate case.

Inventory and Appraisal of Assets

Once the probate case is opened, one of the first steps is the inventory and appraisal of the decedent’s assets. This involves listing all the assets they owned, such as real estate, bank accounts, investments, personal belongings, and more. An appraiser may be involved to determine the value of certain assets, ensuring an accurate assessment for distribution purposes.

Notifying Creditors and Settling Debts

Next, all final expenses must be paid. Therefore, part of the probate process includes notifying creditors of the decedent’s passing. Creditors are given a specific period to make claims against the estate for any outstanding debts. The executor or personal representative reviews these claims and settles valid debts using the assets from the estate.

Distribution of Assets to Beneficiaries

After debts and expenses are settled, the remaining assets are distributed to the beneficiaries according to the decedent’s will. If there was no valid will, then the estate will be distributed according to the statutory default rules. The court oversees this process to ensure fairness and compliance with the legal requirements.

Challenges and Contested Probate

In some cases, disputes may arise during the probate process. Beneficiaries, heirs, or creditors might contest the validity of the will, the appointed personal representative, or the distribution of assets. These challenges can lead to prolonged legal proceedings and may necessitate court interventions to resolve disputes.

Non-Probate Assets

Do all assets have to go through probate? Not all assets go through the probate process. Assets with designated beneficiaries, if set up properly, can bypass probate and go directly to the named beneficiaries. Similarly, assets held in joint tenancy with rights of survivorship transfer automatically to the surviving owner. It’s important to talk with an estate planning attorney to verify your personal situation.

Duration of the Probate Process

How long does probate last? The duration of the probate process varies depending on factors such as the complexity of the estate, local laws, and potential challenges. Even simple estates take a minimum of four months, while more complex cases could take years to reach completion.

Probate and Estate Planning

While probate is a necessary legal process, many of our clients retain us in order to reduce its impact on their estate. Estate planning tools such as revocable living trusts can help bypass or streamline the probate process. By carefully planning their estate, individuals can potentially save time, money, and reduce stress for their loved ones after their passing. We often hear from the personal representatives that we help, about how difficult it is to manage the financial side of a person dying especially while the family is still grieving their loss.


Probate court plays a pivotal role in the legal process that unfolds after someone’s passing. It provides the framework for systematically managing and distributing assets, settling debts, and ensuring a smooth transition of the decedent’s estate. While probate is a structured legal procedure, its intricacies can vary based on individual circumstances. Seeking legal guidance and estate planning can help individuals navigate the complexities of probate, ensuring that their final affairs are handled according to their wishes and at a minimal burden to the family they leave behind.